Biology

Department/Program: Biology

Two degrees are offered in biology (B.S. and B.A.). The B.S. is more stringent in biology and supporting field requirements than the B.A. Both degrees prepare students for a variety of health career fields (including chiropractic medicine, dentistry, medicine, optometry, osteopathic medicine, podiatric medicine, pharmacy, physical therapy, physician assistant, and veterinary medicine) as well as non-health careers and graduate studies in ecology, animal behavior, evoluntionary biology, immunology, reproductive biology, parasitology, botany, plant pathology, genetics, systematics, conservation biology, physiology, molecular biology, and biotechnology.

Students interested in medicine, dentistry, osteopathic medicine, veterinary medicine, and allied health professions should consult with the department chair for preprofessional requirements and a suggested program of study. Preprofessional programs are available in optometry, pharmacy, physical therapy, podiatry, and physician assistant. Students can also gain preparation for numerous graduate school programs in ecology, animal behavior, evolutionary biology, immunology, microbiology, reproductive biology, parasitology, botany, plant pathology, genetics, systematics, conservation biology, physiology, molecular biology, and biotechnology. Students who wish to meet Nebraska certification regulations for secondary teaching of biology should consult the current handbook of the education department.

Courses

Designed for non-science majors, this general education course will examine the principles of biology within the context of the human experience and covers cell biology, physiology, genetics, evolution, ecology, and the interaction of humankind and the environment.
Three hours of lecture per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Not open to biology majors.
(Normally offered each semester.)

An introductory study of the structure, physiology, and pathogenicity of microorganisms, with an emphasis on bacteria and viruses that cause infectious diseases in humans.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Does not count toward a biology major or general education.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

Laboratory experiments associated with BIO 1080 Microbiology.
Corerequiste(s): BIO 1080 Microbiology

An introductory study of cellular physiology and tissues along with a comprehensive study of the integumentary skeletal, muscular, nervous systems, and special senses.
Three lectures per week.
Does not count toward a biology major or general education.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

An introductory study of the blood, cardiovascular lymphatic, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems in addition to metabolism, fluid and electrolyte balance and acid-base balance of the body.
Three Lectures per week.
Does not count toward a biology major or general education.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1090 Human Anatomy and Physiology or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

An introduction to environmental science and scientific methodology using the environment as the system of study. The goals are to help the student develop a better understanding of the environment, gain insight into human-caused problems found in nature, explore the relationships of humanity with the environment, and provide practical experience in performing scientific measurements and experiments.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.

BIO 1300L Lab (0 hours)

.Students will be introduced to biology by actively engaging in research on a variety of biological topics. This inquiry-based and student-centered approach will expose to students to the methods of scientific inquiry and asociated content in an engaging and meaningful way. Specific topics will vary across years and among offered sections but can include such diverse areas as: antipredator behavior, plant viral gene expression, belly button biology, and bacteriophage genomics. Using the research topic as a guide, students will also explore traditional introductory biology content areas.
(Normally offered each semester.)

This course is designed to introduce students to collegiate biology by teaching them how to carry out scientific research. Across all sections of this course, students will pose scientific questions, design and critique experiments, run those experiments, evaluate experimental outcomes, and communicate those outcomes. Within this framework of investigative inquiry, students will learn introductory content that will not only be meaningful for the current course, but will allow for a smoother transition to their sophomore year. Content areas include ecology, genetics, evolution, biodiversity, reproduction, development, and cellular/molecular mechanisms.

An introductory course for biology majors that emphsizes general biological principles of biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, physiology, ecology, reproduction, evolution, and a survey of the diversity of plant life.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
(Normally offered each semester.)

An introductory course for biology majors that emphasizes general biological principles of population genetics and evolution, development, ecology, morphology, physiology, and the diversity of animal life. Students will complete written work including lab reports and scientific journal summaries.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
(Normally offered each semester.)

A topical course designed to investigate relevant subject matter not included in any standard courses. The title and the content will be determined by current mutual interests of students and faculty. This course may be offered to meet a requirement for a major only by approval of the department chair.

This is a research course. The student initially meets with the department chair to select a study topic and review research methods. At this time the student will be assigned a faculty resource person to guide his or her work and assist in an advisory capacity. A copy of the student's work is filed in the archives for the department. Independent study may not duplicate courses described in the catalog.
Prerequisite(s): Senior standing or permission of the department chair.

Supervised individual projects for students on topics selected by the student in consultation with the instructor. Special Projects may not duplicate courses described in the catalog.
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the instructor.

This course allows students to participate in an academic internship.
P/F only.
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the department
chair.

This course emphasizes molecular mechanisms associated with intracellular structures, metabolism, genetic information transfer, heredity, and evolution in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
Three lectures per week with one three-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I , CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I .
(Normally offered each semester.)
 

An introduction to the interaction of life with the environment at the molecular, organismal through ecosystem levels, hightlighting the major factors influencing evolutionary change. Topics include genetic and phenotypic variation, natural selection, adaptation, speciation, symbosis and populations dynamics especially in light of human interference, and ecosystem structure and function. Where possible, principles of evolution and ecology will be integrated.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week, including field, laboratory and greenhouse work.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I .
(Normally offered each semester.)
 

A study of the principles and mechanisms of inheritance and variation, including an introduction to molecular and evolutionary genetics.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1500 General Biology of Plants, BIO 1600 General Biology of Animals, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I , and CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

Laboratory experiments associated with BIO 2600 Genetics.
Corerequiste(s): BIO 2600 Genetics.

A course dealing with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell sructure and function emphasizing ultrastructure research, macromolecular synthesis, cell movement, and cell division.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1500 General Biology of Plants, BIO 1600 General Biology of Animals, and CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I .
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

Laboratory experiments associated with BIO 2700 Cell Biology.
Corerequiste(s): BIO 2700 Cell Biology.

A course designed to treat subject matter not covered in other departmental courses or to provide advanced study of subject matter introduced in other courses. The title, content, and credit hours will be determined by current mutual interests of faculty and students.
Prerequisite(s): To be determined.

This is a research course. The student initially meets with the department chair to select a study topic and review research methods. At this time the student will be assigned a faculty resource person to guide his or her work and assist in an advisory capacity. A copy of the student's work is filed in the archives for the department. Independent study may not duplicate courses described in the catalog.
Prerequisite(s): Senior standing or permission of the department chair.

Supervised individual projects for students on topics selected by the student in consultation with the instructor. Special Projects may not duplicate courses described in the catalog.
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the instructor.

This course allows students to participate in an academic internship.
P/F only.
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the department chair.

An introduction to the ethical issues raised by modern biological and medical research and clinical medicine. Case studies and readings will be used to present the following ethical issues: environmental ethics; patients' rights and physicians' responsibilities; abortion, euthanasia, and definitions of death; allocation of medical resources; humans as experimental subjects; behavioral technologies; genetic testing, screening, and manipulation; and reproductive technologies. Student participation will involve class discussions and oral and written presentations.
One 2-hour lecture/discussion session per week.
Prerequisite(s): Junior standing and at least 16 hours in biology coursework.

A systematic study of chemicals of plant and fungal origin that are used as poisons, hallucinogens, and pharmaceuticals in human health. This course will examine the compounds produced by plants that make medicinal effects possible and the biological mechanisms through which these effects take place in the human body. Ethnobotanical and herbal therapy perspectives in identifying new medicines will also be discussed.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of the instructor.

Laboratory practice in seeding, growing, active ingredient extraction, and utilization of medicinal plants. Emphasis is placed on the survey and identification of important medicinal herb taxa. Students will complete a semester- long project focused on growing a medicinal plant and then isolating and testing extractions for biologic activity.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of instructor.
Corequisite(s): BIO 3160 Medical Botany.

A study of the identification, nomenclature, and classification of plants with emphasis on vascular plants.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of the instructor.

Laboratory experiments associated with BIO 3180 Plant Taxonomy.
Corerequiste(s): BIO 3180 Plant Taxonomy.

This course is the first of a two-semester sequence anatomy and physiology for pre-health students that emphasizes the structure and function of the human body. It includes the study of homeostasis, tissues, and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems in addition to the special senses.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and sophomore standing.

Human Anatomy and Physiology is the study of structure and functions of the human body. This course will cover the topics of blood, the cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, renal and reproductive systems as well as nutrition and metabolism, acid-base, fluid, and electrolyte balance, and human development.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I and sophomore standing.

A study of morphology, taxonomy, and life histories of the parasitic forms in the animal kingdom and of the diseases caused by them. Special attention is given to parasites of humans.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

Laboratory experiments associated with BIO 3220 Parasitology.
Corerequiste(s): BIO 3220 Parasitology.

A general introduction to the field of biochemistry involving a study of the chemistry of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins with attention given to metabolism, energetics, enzymology, role of cofactors, and biochemical control mechanisms.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and CHEM 2110 Organic Chemistry II: Synthesis and Mechanisms and CHEM 1120 Chemical Principles II.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

An introduction to modern biochemical techniques. Students will be exposed to spectrophotometry, chromatography, electrophoresis, and protein and nucleic acid purification.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Pre or corequisite(s): BIO 3410 Biochemistry.

The study of the entire sequence of developmental changes and processes in animals from fertilization to death. The course will emphasize the principles and major mechanisms regulating morphogenesis and cellular differentiation, particularly during embryonic development. In addition, methods used to study embryonic development will be explored. The laboratory introduces students to techniques and procedures for observing and manipulating animal embryos.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

Laboratory experiments associated with BIO 3440 Developmental Biology.
Corerequiste(s): BIO 3440 Developmental Biology.

A course devoted to exploring issues related to biological diversity, including how biodiversity is measured, where it is found, its value, threats to it, and measure taken at the population and species level to conserve it. The course includes examining links between conservation and economics, law, and the social sciences. Case studies and discussions of local and global topics will encourage students to understand the varied threats to global biodiversity and the principles necessary to overcome them.
Three lectures/discussions per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and sophomore standing or instructor permission.
(Normally offered alternate springs.)
Note: Environmental Studies Minors are encouraged to register, please contact the instructor.

Laboratory experiments associated with BIO 3500 Conservation Biology.
Corerequiste(s): BIO 3500 Conservation Biology.

A field ecology course taught in Costa Rica. The purpose of the course is to immerse students in the biology of the rainforest. This is accomplished by students designing and performing scientific research projects, guided hikes, and focusing on particular organismal groups at locations such as Las Cruces Biological Station, a mid-elevation rain forest site. This immersion is supplemented by side trips to interesting locations such as Poas volcano, and a marine location such as Quepos/Manuel Antonio National Park for marine biology exposure and the opportunity for snorkeling or SCUBA (for those that are certified). Trips to Costa Rica typically last 11-14 days, but students meet with instructor for several weeks prior to trip and several weeks after trip, culminated with a poster presentation of their research.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry or permission of the instructor.

A field ecology course taught in the Central American nation of Belize. The course examines historical and current human land use patterns in Belize through visits to two Mayan ruins (i.e., Xunantunich and Caracol) that date from the Early Classic and Classic Mayan periods. Students spend several days in southern Belize living at the Las Cuevas Research Station located in the Chiquibul Forest Reserve Tropical rain forest (TRF) structure and ecology is presented using lecture, field trips, and a student research project. The remainder of the course is spent on an island situated on the Belize Barrier Reef. Reef ecology, mangrove ecology, and other elements of marine biology are covered during this portion of the course. Morning and evening lectures are used to introduce and review concepts highlighted during daily field trips. Field trips at this location involve snorkeling and SCUBA diving trips to sites near Southwater Caye.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry or permission of the instructor.

Course focusing on basic concepts in marine biology. Topics discussed in this course include basic oceanography, plankton ecology, nekton biology, meiofauna, marine communities, and the impact of humans on marine systems. Two lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry or permission of the instructor.

A field marine biology course taught at a remote location in the Americas. The course is a continuation of the concepts presented in BIO 3530 Principles of Marine Biology usually by focusing on a tropical coral reef ecosystem. Students gain an understanding of how to sample, monitor, and assess reef ecosystem health with particular attention paid to plankton biology. Mangrove biology and ecology are also covered during the course. Students are required to complete an independent research project of their design and choosing while in the field.
Prerequisite(s): PADI or SSI Open Water Diver SCUBA certification and BIO 3530 Principles of Marine Biology (or permission of the instructor).

A comprehensive study of the functions of the animal body with emphasis on fundamental physiological processes and the experimental approach.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
Recommended: MATH 1400 Pre-Calculus and PHYS 1600 Principles of Physics I or PHYS 2000 General Physics I.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

The study of animal behavior from both the ethological and behavioral ecological perspectives. Broad topic areas include behvioral mechanisms, genetics of behavior, behavioral evolution, and behavioral adaptation.
Concurrent enrollment in BIO 3650 Laboratory in Animal Behavior is encouraged.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and a minimum of sophomore standing.

An introduction to hands-on behavioral experiments and the methodology for studying animal behavior in the field and in the laboratory.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Corequisite(s): BIO 3640 Animal Behavior.

A study of the classification, morphology, and physiology of microorganisms with special emphasis on bacteria and viruses.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and CHEM 2110 Organic Chemistry II: Synthesis and Mechanisms.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

Laboratory experiments associated with BIO 3690 Microbiology.
Corerequiste(s): BIO 3690 Microbiology.

This is a course about animal and plant function - about "how organisms work". It is a physiology course taught from a womewhat ecological and evolutionary perspective. The course will address physiological topics from the following perspectives: comparative, ecological, environmental, evolutionary, integrative, and organismal. It will to some extent address molecular and cellular mechanisms, but at the same time it will emphasize the organismal, ecological, and evolutionary significance of physiological function. The course will take a holistic view of physiological mechanisms and emphasize organismal interactions with the environment (ecology) and their evoluntionary significance. This course will combine information from physiology with that of physical and chemical processes with structure in order to understand how animals evolved their functional characteristics and how they stay alive in the face of constantly changing internal and external environments.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

A study of the systems, mechanisms, and methods of molecular genetics with a particular emphasis on the analysis of the genetic material--mutagensis, replication, regulation, transcription, and translation--and its protein products and their biological function. Recombinant DNA/genetic engineering and other modern technologies will be discussed.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I , and CHEM 2100 Organic Chemistry I .

A laboratory course that focuses on modern methods and instrumentation used in molecular genetics- based research. Students will gain experience through extensive research projects involving recombinant DNA technology, gene expression, DNA sequencing and bioinformatics/genomics.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, CHEM 1110 Chemical Principles I .
Corequisite(s): BIO 3800 Molecular Genetics.

A course designed to treat subject matter not covered in other departmental courses or to provide advanced study of subject matter introduced in other courses. The title, content, and credit hours will be determined by current mutual interests of faculty and students.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution; additional requirements may be determined by the instructor.

An opportunity for students, under the supervision of a faculty member, to pursue scientific literature not covered in other coursework.
Prerequisite(s): Major or minor in biology and permission of a faculty member in the Department of Biology.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

Individual laboratory projects for qualified biology majors. Independent study may not duplicate courses described in the catalog.
Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department chair.

Supervised individual projects for students on topics selected by the student in consultation with the instructor. Special Projects may not duplicate courses described in the catalog.
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the instructor.

A supervised field experience enabling observation and participation in a clinical or research setting relating to biology. Submission of a journal and/or written paper would follow at least 30 hours of field experience.
Pass/Fail only.
Prerequisite(s): Major or minor in biology, approval of the department chair, and approval of the coordinating clinic or laboratory.

A study of the microscopic anatomy and functions of the mammalian tissues and organs with modern concepts of histophysiology and histogenesis.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
(Normally offered each spring semester.)

Laboratory experiments associated with BIO 4190 Histology.
Corerequiste(s): BIO 4190 Histology.

A study of the reciprocal relationships of living organisms and their environments with respect to individuals, populations, and communities.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week, including field and greenhouse work.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

Laboratory experiments associated with BIO 4210 Ecology.
Corerequiste(s): BIO 4210 Ecology.

A study of the development, anatomy, and functionality of plant tissues, systems, and organs in representative members of the plant kingdom.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

A course dealing with the development and the structure of various system of vertebrates. Detailed dissection of the dogfish shark, the necturus, and the cat.
Three lectures per week.
Two 2-hour labs per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
(Normally offered each fall semester.)

A course for biology majors that emphasizes the natural history, evolution, ecology, morphology, anatomy, physiology, and diversity of both extant and extinct vertebrate groups. Emphasis will be on species found in Nebraska. Students will learn to identify specimens, dissect selected specimens, and investigate current topics in vertebrate zoology through oral presentations and at least one review paper.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

An introduction to the principle and mechanisms of evolution.
Three lectures per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology and BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.
(Normally offered alternate fall semesters.)

A survey of the mechanisms of diseases and fundamental disease processes of each organ system. Special topics related to the study of diseases will be assigned.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1090 Human Anatomy and Physiology and BIO 1100 Human Anatomy and Physiology, or BIO 3200 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology I and BIO 3210 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology II, or permission of the instructor.
(Normally offered each semester.)

A study of the mammalian Immune system. Topics will include innate immunity, acquired (antibody and cell-mediated) immunity, common laboratory techniques, and medical immunology.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry and BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology.
Pre or corequisite(s): BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution.

(Normally offered each spring semester.)

An introduction to common immunological procedures used in clinical and research settings, such as ELISA, western blotting, flow cytometry, and cell proliferation assays.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry and BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology.
Pre or corequisite(s): BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and BIO 4750 Immunology are recommended but not required.

(Normally offered alternate spring semesters.)

A study of the systems, mechanisms, and methods of molecular biology with a particular emphasis on the analysis of the genetic material--mutagenisis, replication, regulation, transcription, and translation--and its protein products and their biological function. Recombinant DNA and genetic engineering will be a major focus in the laboratory.
Three lectures per week.
One 3-hour lab per week.
Prerequisite(s): BIO 1400 Introduction to Biological Inquiry, BIO 2200 Genetics and Cell Biology, BIO 2300 Ecology and Evolution and CHEM 2110 Organic Chemistry II: Synthesis and Mechanisms.

Laboratory experiments associated with BIO 4830 Molecular Biology.
Corerequiste(s): BIO 4830 Molecular Biology.

A topical course designed to investigate relevant subject matter not included in any standard courses. The title and the content will be determined by current mutual interests of students and faculty. This course may be offered to meet a requirement for a major only by approval of the department chair.

An opportunity for students, under the of a faculty member, to pursue scientific literature not covered in other coursework.

This is a research course. The student initially meets with the department chair to select a study topic and review research methods. At this time the student will be assigned a faculty resource person to guide his or her work and assist in an advisory capacity. A copy of the student's work is filed in the archives for the department. Independent study may not duplicate courses described in the catalog.
Prerequisite(s): Senior standing or permission of the department chair.

Supervised individual projects for students on topics selected by the student in consultation with the instructor. Special Projects may not duplicate courses described in the catalog.
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the instructor.

This course allows students to participate in an academic internship.
Pass/Fail only.
Prerequisite(s): Permission of the department chair.

Individual library thesis projects for biology majors to meet senior comprehensive requirement. A research report in scientific format and a formal presentation of the thesis is required.
Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department chair.

Individual laboratory or field research projects for qualified biology majors to meet senior comprehensive requirement. A research report in scientific format and a formal presentation of the research is required.
Prerequisite(s): Approval of the department chair.

This course is designed to give students the opportunity for in-depth study of a Biology- based concept. Topics will consist of a highly specialized area of study or revolve around issues or recent trends and innovations related to the field of biology. This course is offered in University College only.